Forex Chart Types, Chart Patterns, Candlestick Patterns and Indicators


Various indicators are used by traders for forex trading in Sri Lanka in order to get some detailed understanding of the supply and demand of currencies. There are many ways to analyze the forex market and what’s important is how to use various technical tools to analyze the market information. You can learn to analyze the market conditions and anticipate the price movements using elements like charts, patterns, and forex indicators.

The main purpose of using these elements is to accomplish the price forecasting. Using charts and patterns, you can comprehend and process past market data of the forex market and, you can put some efforts into anticipating future price movements.

Line, Bar and Candlestick Charts

Line Chart in Forex

A line chart joins the sequential data points using a line and this chart is utilized by forex traders to keep track of closing prices of the currency. This chart is one of the most preferred charts used by forex traders and is formed by connecting a few successive closing prices together. In addition, line charts can be utilized for any time-frame. A line chart provides the forex traders with a distinct image of the price movements of a currency over a period of specified time. As the closing prices are considered as the most important price of the trading day, it can be seen why line charts are so often used by traders in the forex market.

Bar Chart in Forex

Bar charts are the charts that display the movement of prices of a currency over a specified time period. Bar charts are used for technical analysis in order to measure the performance of the currency in the forex market. A bar chart comprises a few elements:

  1. The right side of the bar contains the closing price.
  2. The left side of the bar contains the opening price.
  3. The top of the bar signifies the highest price of the currency during the day trading.
  4. The bottom of the bar signifies the lowest price of the currency during the day trading.

A single bar covers a predetermined time-frame, which is usually one day. Nonetheless, a bar chart can at times also cover the time-frame from one minute to a week or more.

Candlestick chart in Forex

Candlestick is very much like bar chart as it also shows the opening price, high price, low price, and close price for the trading day in the forex market. Usually, the candlestick shows the data for one trading day. The candlestick has a broad body, also referred to as the real body. The real body shows the range of currency prices which lies between the opening and closing price of the currency for a day's trading. When the closing price is lower than the opening price, the real body will be black, and when the closing price is higher than the closing price, the real body will be empty.

Chart Patterns

There are thousands of traders who trade in the forex market on an everyday basis and it can be difficult to make trading decisions. Chart patterns are one way to identify the future price movements. They focus on the bigger picture and help the traders in recognizing the future price movements.

Chart patterns have pre-defined distinctness and criteria, but no pattern can guarantee 100% accuracy or certainty when it comes to price movements in future. The most favorite chart patterns are reversals and continuations. A reversal pattern shows that the price movement will reverse at the end of the pattern and a continuation pattern shows that the prices will move with the same pattern even after the pattern gets completed.

Given below are some of the most popular chart patterns that are used in the forex market:

Head and Shoulders

The Head and Shoulders is a reversal kind of chart pattern that shows that the price movements might follow a reversal trend once the pattern is finished. It has two types, standard head and shoulders top pattern and head and shoulder bottom pattern. The top pattern shows that the price movement for a currency pair will move downwards when the pattern is completed at the highest point of an upward trend. The bottom pattern shows that the price of the currency pair will rise after a downward pattern is completed.

Cup and Handle

The cup and handle pattern can be both, reversal and continuation chart pattern. For reversal pattern to occur, the price must be moving downwards. As the cup has the rounded bottom, that is where the reversal patterns take place as prices start moving upwards from the bottom of the cup. When a cup pattern is formed, the price should take a pause and move sideways or lower to create a handle. For a continuation pattern, the prices must be moving upwards. The price movement will form a cup shape patterns and creates a handle, and then breaks out of the handle to keep moving upwards.

Double Tops and Bottoms

The Double Tops and Bottoms chart pattern is easy to identify and also one of the most dependable analytical tools in the forex market. A double top is formed when the price reaches a high point in the upward trend and then moves downward to a new low point. Then again some time in near future price touches a new high point, very close to the previous high point and then falls below the previous low point. It is recognized as double top as the price reaches the high point twice in the same zone, incapable of moving ahead of that zone.

A double bottom is formed when the price reaches a low point during the downward trend and then pulls back and starts moving upwards to a high point. When the price movement once again faces a decline, it touches the low point near to the previous low point, and then move upwards and touches the point higher than the previous high point. It is recognized as double bottom as both times price reached a low point in the same area and was not able to move below that.


Triangle chart pattern is one of the most known patterns employed in the technical forex analysis as they appear more frequently as compared to other patterns. The three regular kinds of triangle patterns are ascending, descending, and symmetrical. The triangle patterns can last from a few weeks to many months.

In symmetrical triangles, two market trend lines meet each other and indicate that a breakout may take place. Ascending triangles has a straight upward trend line and a lower trend line which is moving upwards, conveying that a breakout might occur. In descending triangles, there is a straight lower trend line and an upper trend line which is moving downwards, conveying that a breakdown might occur.

Flags & Pennants

Flags and Pennants are a form of continuation patterns. They show a sharp price movement, upwards or downwards, then there is a short sideways or downside movement and then the prevailing trend continues. This sideways movement usually creates a rectangle form, known as flag pattern, and when it creates a triangle form, it is called a pennant pattern.

Candlestick Patterns

Candlesticks patterns are formed when the price movements are represented by a candle body. Candle body It is a solidified area existing between the opening and closing price of the currency, and the wicks display the high and low points. Given below are some of the popular candlestick patterns:

Let’s take a look at four of the most popular candlestick patterns along with several actual stock chart examples in order to show their worth.

Bullish Engulfing Candlestick

Bullish engulfing candlestick pattern occurs with the combination of two candlesticks of the current day and the previous day. The candle from the previous day is black candlestick and candle of the current day is the white candlestick.

For the previous day, the price opens at an almost highest point and closes at the almost lowest point for the day. This forms the first candle which is the black candle.

For the next or current day, the price opens at price below the closing price of the previous day. It increases the demand for the currency and price begins to move upwards. The day session closes at the price above the high price of the previous day.

Thus the white candle engulfs the black candle completely.

Bearish Engulfing Candlestick

Bearish Engulfing Pattern occurs with the combination of two candlesticks of previous and current day. The previous day candle is the white candle and current day candle is the black candle.

For the previous day, the price opens at a nearly lowest price of the day and at the end of the day, the price closes at a nearly highest price of the day. It forms the first and white candle. For the next or current day, the price opens at the level above the closing price of the previous day and then the price starts to move downwards.

The price keeps on falling and closes at the price below the closing price of the previous day. This forms the black candle, which engulfs the white candle completely.

Hammer Candlestick Pattern

A hammer candlestick pattern is formed when forex traders turn down the support or resistance levels. When Hammer pattern is formed, it means that the opening price, highest price, and the closest price are close to each other so that the real body is small in size. It also has a long lower shadow, which is at least twice the size of the real body.

Doji Candlestick Pattern

Doji candlestick pattern shows the indecision which is felt by the traders when it comes to the price action of a currency. Here, the opening and closing prices of a currency are almost equal. Doji candlesticks look like a cross or a plus sign. A Doji can be seen at the top and bottom of the market trends and can also be seen as a sign of possible reversal or continuation patterns based on the circumstances.

Forex Indicators

The best way to identify the most suitable forex indicator is to see how it suits your trading style and perspective. There are a variety of forex indicators and you can find that will be right for you. Some of them are:

Moving Averages

A moving average is a popular forex indicator which is used in the technical analysis in smoothing out the price movement action by removing the random price swings from the main action. The two fundamental moving averages are the simple and exponential moving average. A simple moving average is calculated based on over a definite number of time periods. The Exponential moving average gives more weightage to the recent prices. Usually, moving averages are used to determine the direction of the market trend and identify support and resistance levels.


Fractals are indicators that help in recognizing the reversal levels in the market. Forex traders utilize the fractals to identify the future price direction and movements.

Most of the trading platforms with chart features provide fractals so that traders can just use the indicator on the chart to figure out the price patterns.

Bollinger Bands

Bollinger Bands is a forex indicator, formulated by John Bollinger. It is used to determine the level of volatility in the forex market. Basically, when the market is unagitated, the bands will shrink in size and when the market gets noisy, the bands will spread out.


RSI stands for Relative Strength Index. It is a momentum forex indicator that determines the speeding and change of the recent price movements so as to study the conditions that might have resulted in overbought or oversold of the currency. RSI is regarded as overbought when the RSI value is higher than 70 and it is considered as oversold when the RSI value is under 30. These values can be modified based on what fits the security in the best way.

You can add these indicators to your chart using the trading software given to you by the Forex Brokers.

If you are interested in learning more about forex market price action analysis, you can refer to ‘ What is Price action trading analysis ? ’ and for getting more information about how to trade forex in Sri Lanka, ‘ Introduction to Forex Trading .

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